Népszerű bejegyzés

A következő címkéjű bejegyzések mutatása: angol. Összes bejegyzés megjelenítése
A következő címkéjű bejegyzések mutatása: angol. Összes bejegyzés megjelenítése

2011. február 20., vasárnap

Economical and social characterization of region of the North Great Plain

  • population: 1,550,000 people
  • population density: 87.5 p/
  • population of the North Great Plain is constant the annual variation is only 0.03%.
  • unemployment: 90,000 people are not employed
  • there are not small cities: people live in villages and large cities,  this evolved under the Turkish Reign
  • Gipsy population is about 50,000
  • religion.-1,150,000 people are members of a religious group
  •  the most popular churches-Catholic /550,000 p./   
  • Calvinist /550,000 p./
  • landscape: it is a plain, so the variation of height not reaches 200m
  • it is poor in minerals /except some recourses/ 
  • it has good soil and climate
  • agriculture and processing industry, which settled on it, is developed
  • the development of the infrastructure is under the territorial (országos) average   

Counties of the North Plain:-Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county
  • Hajdú-Bihar county
  • Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok county

There are big differences between the counties inside the region.:
  • H.-B. c.:-It has multi-faceted agriculture and industry.
  • Debrecen has central role.
  • J.-N.-Sz. c.:-Mean developed (közepesen fejlett) area.
  • Sz.-Sz.-B. c.:-It is at a disadvantage (hátrányos helyzetben van).-small settlements
  • high rate of unemployment
  • unfavourable soil attributes (talajadottságok)
Hajdú-Bihar County:

Minerals (ásványkincsek):
  • the natural gas extraction (kitermelés) is significant and there is a bit mineral oil extraction 
Industry:-industry is settled in the cities
  • Debrecen has multi-faced industry:-chemical-, food-, press industry and production of agricultural machines and bearing (csapágy)
  • Other cities with factories:-Hajdúszoboszló-chemical industry
  • Téglás-production of machines
Agriculture:-in this county agriculture has an important role
  • main cultivated plants:-wheat
  • corn
  • potato
  • sugar-beet
  •  animal breeding:-cow-9% of the Hungarian substance is in this county
  •  swine-10%
  •  sheep-20%
Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County:

  • extraction of the natural gas and mineral oil is should be noted
  • extraction of raw materials of the building industry is significant-sand
  • clay
  • it is settled in the cities
  • leading branches:-machine industry-Jászberény
  • Szolnok
  • food industry-poultry processing-Törökszentmiklós
  • milk industry-Tiszafüred
  • mill industry-Törökszentmiklós
  • sugar industry-Szolnok
  • vegetable oil and bier production-Martfű
  • baking industry-Szolnok
  • other existing branches in this county: -chemical industry-Szolnok
  • paper industry-Szolnok
  • furniture industry-Szolnok
  • shoe production-Martfű
Agriculture:-in this county agriculture has an important role
  • main cultivated plants:-wheat
  • sunflower
  • corn
  • sugar-beet
  • alfalfa (lucerna)
  • rice-90% of the Hungarian rice casting area (vetőterület) is in this county
  • animal breeding: -there is about 7-8% of the Hungarian substance of swine, cow and sheep
  • there are about 4000 horses
  • and more than one million poultries
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County:
  • only sand, and clay are extracted in this county

  • leading branch:-food industry-Kisvárda
  • other important branches in this county:-chemical industry
  • textile industry
  • machine industry
  • wood industry-Vásárosnamény
  • Tuzsér
  • centres of the industry:-Nyíregyháza:-food industry
  • gum industry (gumiipar)
  • Tiszavasvári:-medical industry
  • Nyírbátor:-shoe industry
  • Záhony:-its industry is built on the border traffic
  • main cultivated plants:-field (szántóföldi) plants-wheat, corn, sugar-beet and potato
  • fruits-apple, plum, cherry and nut
  • animal breeding:-there is about 5% of the Hungarian substance of swine and cow
  • there is 16.5% of the Hungarian substance of sheep 
  • there is about 6.5% of the Hungarian substance of poultry

2010. december 7., kedd


Earthquake is a movement of the crust. About 150, 000 earthquakes can be sensed yearly without instruments, these movements are the macro seismic quakes (makroszeizmikus rengés). And there are 1 million, which is only detectable with instruments, these are the micro seismic quakes (mikroszeizmikus rengés). 90% of the earthquakes are connected with the margins of plates, similarly to active volcanoes. And because of this, on a map the epicentres show these lines. The other 10% are caused by eruption of volcanoes, and the collapse of underground cavities (üreg). The hypocentre is the underground site, from which earthquakes waves originate. The epicentre is the area of the surface directly above the hypocentre /focus/ o fan earthquake. We can make a difference among three types of the earthquakes: shallow-focused (sekély fészkű) /0-70 km/, mid-focused (közép fészkű) /70-300 km/, and deep-focused (mély fészkű) /300-700 km/ earthquakes. We can measure the strength of the earthquake by seismograph. There are two scales to express the power of an earthquake. 
a)      Richter scale: It contains 10 grades:
Micro (less than 2.0), Very Minor (2.0-2.9), Minor (3.0-3.9), Light (4.0-4.9), Moderate (5.0-5.9), Strong (6.0-6.9), Major (7.0-7.9), Great (8.0-8.9), Rarely Great, (9.0-9.9), Meteoric (10+)

b)      Mercalli scale: It contains 12 grades:
I, Instrumental, II, Feeble, III, Slight, IV, Moderate, V, Rather Strong, VI, Strong, VII, Very Strong, VIII, Destructive, IX, Ruinous, X, Disastrous, XI, Very Disastrous, XII, Catastrophic

-The strongest earthquake in Hungary was in 28. 06. 1763. in Komárom.
-The strongest earthquake on the Earth since 1900 was in 2004 in Sumatra, Indonesia, its magnitude was 9.0, and there 289.000 people died.

Characterisation of the centres and peripheries of world economy from the economical and social point of view

The centres and peripheries are the 2 opposite poles of world economy. The centres of world economy contain those areas in which the most important elements of capitalist economy (the capital, the technical- and social knowledge) accumulate. Developed countries belong to the centre, they have a leading role in the most modern and the fastest developing economical branches, in the economical system of the world and in the organization of regional integrations. They have influence on international trade, and on the movement of capital and money. Due to their leading role in world economy, their national economy is also integrated on a high level. It means that the connection system between their ecomical branches and the proccesses of their national economy is multilateral sokrétű. The infrastructure is also highly developed. 

Outside  the centre, there is a semi-peripheric zone whose countries provides resource, market and expanding area for the central states.

 The next zone is the periphery which is the outskirt of the world economy from both economical and territorial point of view. It contains the group of developing countries.They have a passive role in world economy or they are very dependent on the global economical processes directed by developed countries.But for these countries it is possible to rise. felemelkedni (gazdasági értelemben is)          
Nowadays three centre pole of growing növekedési pólus move mozgatja the world trade. The status of several countries and regions are determined by their relationship to the centre poles of growing. The 3 centre pole of growing are: the European Union, the U.S.A and Japan. Their common name is Triad. In today’s world economy actually the Triad takes up teszi ki, alkotja the centre. The flow of capital, technology and goods take place here, it possesses the 80% of all functioning capital. The other economical regions are only hinterlandshátország of the Triad.
 The main engine and haszonélvező of world trade has been the U.S.A since the 1990’s. Its functioning capital import and export is the largest in the world, and it accunulates the largest commercial deficit.
Japan’s economical outputteljesítmény has stagnated since the 1990’s, but it has the most significant commercial activity of the three poles of growing. Its functioning capital export is much more than its import.
The profit of the European Union’s commerce is quite mild. The 1/3 of the world’s functioning capital export and import is conducted lebonyolít by the EU.
Social point of view:
The food production of the world – despite the population boom – exceeded meghaladta the increase of all population. As a result of the modern agrotechnics of the developed countries the overproduction of food is characteristic to the entire world, even some countries suffer from crisis caused by the overproduction. In these areas there is overconsumption that is an exacerbating súlyosbodó impactártalom on civilization. The unhealthy alimentation (that contains too much carbohydrate and protein) and the lack of training endangers the health of the population living in prosperity.
In a larger proportion of world population the main problem is the lack of food. The agricultural production of developing countries is not in proportion with the rapid increase of population that is why the lack of food is constantállandó in these territories. The most cruel consequence of overpopulation is malnutrition. éhezés
The feature of the third large group of people is „hidden malnutrition”. Their problem is not the quantity of the food, but its quality. This food misses vitamins and microelements.

In countries suffering from malnutrition infant and child mortality is high and low life expectancy and pathologic kóros decrease of body weight of children are characteristic. The income of the population of developing countries is so low that they cannot appear on food market as a consumer. Consequently the main reason for malnutrition is poverty.             

Changes in the Energy Policy of the World from the late 20th century

OPEC: Organiztaion of Petrol Exporting Countries
1973: OPEC decided that the exporters increase the price of oil significantly
  • It is called „oil price explosion” (olajár-robbanás) and the economical crisis that evolved due to this is called „oil crisis” (olajválság).
  • As the price of oil increased it brought about general increasing of the price of energy
  • The production of all goods needs energy, consequently the increase of oil’s price led to a general increase of prices
It led to: 
- bankruptcy (csőd) of companies
- unemployment
- inflation
- decrease of economical increase (this is called recession)
(=gazdasági növekedés csökkenése, amit recessziónak nevezünk)

The crisis was exacerbated by that the world economy at that time was in a period when the demands of the consumers’ market determined the production (not conversely) and the consumers were interested in unique products, not in goods producted en masse (tömegesen).

Companies had to change, had to research the demands of the consumers, evolve (kifejleszt) the product, organize its production and put it on the market as fast as possible

It made production expensive, because the budget of raw-material and energy increased

They had to find solution in order to remain able to compete
They turned towards renewable energy resources, because they are cheaper and by the usage of these resources, producers depended less on the fluctuation of the prices of oil than before

Renewable energy resources:
1.) hydroelectric power: power of rivers
dams (e.g. Norway and Scandinavia) & reservoirs (e.g. China)

2.) solar energy:
- comes from the sun used by solar collectors  provides small amount of energy  private houses use this kind of resource
- uneven energy resource

3.) wind energy:
- uneven
- can be used along seacoasts and at places where there is constant wind
(e.g. seacoasts, plains, high mountains)

4.) geothermal energy: steam
5.) waves tides  tidal energy (waves and tides are the biggest at the bay of Fundy /60m/)


America lies on the Northern, Southern and Western hemisphere of the Earth. Asia lies the closest to it at the Bering Strait.

The two main parts are North America and South America which are joined by the narrow isthmus of Central America.

The huge North-Southern extension of America is shown by the fact that it is crossed by the Northern Polar Circle, the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and by the Tropic of Capricorn. The Southernmost part of the continent lies close to the Southern polar circle.

The continent is bordered by the Arctic Ocean (North), the Atlantic Ocean (East) and by the Pacific Ocean on the West. The two oceans are connected under the narrow Southern part of the continent. Due to the fact that they lie extremely close to each other at Central America, the Panama Canal was built at the narrowest part of the isthmus.

East from Central America, the archipelago of the Caribbean Sea is located with the Lesser Antilles, the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas.

Because of the numerous peninsulas, islands and gulfs the coastline is said to be indented.

Greenland, the greatest island of the world, belongs to the islands of the Arctic Ocean. The islands of the Eastern part: Florida and the Labrador Peninsula. On the West, we can find Alaska and California which run out far into the sea.

The two largest gulfs are the Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.

The coastline of South America is unindented.

America is the second largest continent after Asia in size: 42.1 million km2.

The relief of land and the mineral resources of North America

The oldest part of it is the Canadian Shield which embraces the Hudson Bay. Towards the West and South-west the shield can also be found under the sediments of the neighbouring regions. It is actually built up of granite and has been created by destruction which consumed many hundred millions of years. That is why its minerals are close to the surface now. Its current surface got created thanks to the Ice age. The ice cap planed its surface by its sliding motion. The soft rocks were excavated, the harder ones were smoothed and the debris was deposited. After the continuous melting of the ice cap the continent started to elevate. The basins were filled up by lakes and the rivers also contributed to the further creation of the relief of North America.

The Appalachians, which lie on the Eastern side of the continent, elevated in the Paleozoic. Between the ranges of the block mountains, there are fertile plateaux and river valleys. On the terraced slopes rivers flow with several waterfalls. Their powers are utilized by hydroelectric power plants. The most important mineral resource is the black coal.

The youngest and the highest mountains of the continent are the Cordilleras and they got created in the tertiary period as a part of the Pacific mountain system. The orogenesis still hasn’t come to and end due to the closing Pacific plate and North American plate. An obvious proof of this was the eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980.

The ridges of the Pacific mountain system can also be found in South America and even in Asia on the coasts of the Pacific Ocean.

The Western ridges of the Cordilleras are young mountains that are separated by trenches.

The innermost arch of the Cordilleras are the Rocky Mountains which blocks have been arised by Pacific movements again. Its ice-capped peaks make the mountain similar to mountain chains.

The ranges of the Cordilleras embrace several plateaux, such as the Colombian Plateau, the Colorado Plateau and the Mexican plateau.

On the area of Central America the ranges continue with frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

On the slopes of The Rockies can be located the tables of the Preri which is covered by loess.

The lowest and youngest region of North America is the Mississippi Plain. Once it was flooded by the ocean. Its horizontally deposited layers of sediments hide oil and natural gas. On the thick layers the Mississippi and its tributaries deposited debris.

The relief of land and the mineral resources of North America

South America has two shields: The Guyana shield and the Brazil Highland. Both were parts of the Gondvanaland on the Southern hemisphere. Their pieces, which are connected deeply under the land, are actually connected by the Amazonas Basin on the surface which is mainly built up of the sediments of the sea and deposits.

The ridges of the Western part of the continent elevated because of the folding of the oceanic and the continental plate. The deposits of the oceanic plate and the rocks of the plate themselves went deep and melted, and intensive volcanic activity started: this is how the volcanic ridges were formed. The folded sediments elevated on the Eastern part.

The Andes, which are the longest mountain chains all over the world, formed in this way as part of the Pacific mountain system. In front of it, under the Pacific Ocean, there is a trench because it is a subduction zone where the oceanic plate goes under the continental plate.

This process, which started in the Mesozoic, has not yet come to an end. Because of the colliding plates, volcanic activities and earthquakes are still very frequent. The Southern part of the Andes is the second in the row of the most seizmic parts of the Earth after Japan.

The Andes have many magmatic rocks – such as the andesite which name is similar to the name of the mountain itself.

Over and above the factors mentioned above – because of the height above sea level -, the surface was formed by the ice as well.

The ranges are North-Southern in orientation. They surround plateaus. The greatest one of them is the Bolivian Plateau which is covered by a thick layer of debris and lava.

The mineral resources of the Andes got close to the surface during volcanic activities and they are ores of non-ferrous metals and precious metals such as copper, tin-stone and silver.

The youngest regions of the continent are the plains. The plain of the Northern part of South America is the Orinoco Basin which is rich in oil. The Parana Plain is located on the Southern part of the continent. In the basin of the Amazon River not only the largest plain of the continent but that of the Earth is lying as well. In the Tertiary period there was a gulf but the accumulation of the debris of the Amazon River created a plain on the area of it. Its slope faces the Atlantic Ocean.

Last but not least, we have to mention Patagonia which is built up of tables and on which the accumulated volcanic debris and the debris of the glaciers are originated from the Andes.

2010. november 25., csütörtök

Climate of Hungary

-absolute location:-northern hemisphere:
-eastern hemisphere:
-relative location:-Eastern Central Europe

Hungary is located in the-temperate zone
-true temperate belt
-moderately continental region
-wet continental climate

Wet continental climate /ordinary data/:
-there are 4 seasons: cold winter, spring, warm summer, autumn
-annual mean temperature:
-annual mean temperature fluctuation:
-annual mean precipitation: 500-800 mm
-vegetation: oak forest
-soil: brown forest soil
-droughts are frequent in July and August

Hungarian climate is influenced by:
-distance from the ocean
-basin characteristic
- the cyclones and anticyclones, which are formed above:
1. -the Atlantic Ocean
2. -Eastern Europe
3. -the Mediterranean Sea

Duration of sunshine: - South Duna-Tisza köze: 2100 hours/year
-near the western border: 1700-1800 h/y

Temperature:-annual mean temperature:
-annual mean temperature fluctuation:
-the highest temperature is on the South-East part of the country

-on the western side of the Tisza and on Transdanubia : north-western winds
-on the eastern side of the Tisza: north-eastern winds
-Danube-Tisza Interflow: north winds
- Northern Mountains: chaotic winds

Precipitation: -annual mean precipitation: 500-900 mm
-the difference among the monthly mean precipitations can be extremely large
-most of the precipitation fell-in the end of the spring
-in the beginning of the summer

2010. november 19., péntek

Natural geographic characterization of the Great Plain

-Whole Territory of it is 100,000 And 52,000 are in Hungary.

- This scenery is the most extended in Hungary.

-The most uniform in a way of relief and climate.

-Large part of it is perfect plain. perfect plain: where the distance between the lowest and the highest point is smaller than 100 m.
-Landscape of it was transformed by people. - deforestation /from the early Middle Ages/
-control of the Tisza and its tributaries/ 19th century / (mellékfolyók)
-So the characteristic Hungarian landscape, the “puszta” is not a natural landscape of the territory, but it was formed by human.

Parts of the Great Plain:
4.-Beregi-Plain 1. loess (hordalékkúp)
-Beregi-Tiszahát (löszös hordalékkúp)
-Szatmári-Tiszahát 2. sandy (hodalékkúp)
4.-Szatmári-Plain 3. drained marsh ->
3.-Ecsedi-moor (láp) ->meadow, pasture
2.-Nyírség 4. flood-basin (ártér)
1.-Maros-Kőrös köze

National Parks of the Great Plain:-Hortobágyi

Characterization of some parts of the Great Plain:
We can divide the Great Plain into two parts on the basis of the catchment areas :(vízgyűjtő terület)
-Dunai Great Plain
-Tiszai Great Plain

Dunai Great Plain

Dunamenti-Plain:-it is near the Danube for 15-30 km
-Pesti-Plain: free of flood (ármentes)
-southern part extended flood-basin
-on the south, on the right side of the river is the Sárköz

Kiskunság:-it formed in the Pleistocene
-130-170 m high alluvial cone
-sandy soil
-there are dunes still in movement /Bugac, Fülöpháza/

Mezőföld: -covered by loess
-on the right-hand side of the Danube
-many landslides /Dunaújváros, Dunaföldvár/

Drávamellék:-on both side of the river
-only the left-hand part is in Hungary
-mediterranean climate
-the most precipitation of the Great Plain /700 mm/year /

Tiszai Great Plain

-artificial ox-bow lakes are frequent
-15-25 km wide

Jászság:-near the lower course (alsó folyás) of the Zagyva

-covered by sand
-there is the highest point of the Great Plain: Hoportyó-183 m

-covered by loess

-important touristic centre
-it is a part of the World Heritage

-the driest part of the country /less than 500 mm/year/
Körös region:
-perfect plain
-there were marshes

-now: meadows, pastures

Maros-Körös köze:
-covered by loess

-its south eastern part is the hottest part of the country /annual mean temperature is 11°C, mean temperature in July is 22°C/

2010. november 9., kedd

The History of the Earth (mainly that of the Mesozoic Era)

- the study of the history of the Earth
- uses the fossils (=remains of plants or animals from pre-historic times. They are found in
sedimentary rocks.) to establish the age of the rock layers
2 dating methods:
1.) relative dating method:  based on the law of superposition (=youngest rock layers are ont he top of the rock sequence whereas the oldest are on the bottom.) a this method is rarely because both of internal forces (folding, faulting) often rearrange the layers!!

2.) absolute dating method:  based ont he natural radioactivity of certain minerals (uranium,
- C14 is used to determine the age of the organic matter

On the basis of the dating methods geologists have established a geological timescale which has got eras, periods and epochs:
(65 million years)
--- holocene (present time)
--- pleistocene (ice age)

--- pliocene
--- miocene
--- oligocene
--- eocene

(235 – 65 million years)

(590 – 235 million years)

(2600 million years)
(4600 million years)

Archaeozoic (ősidő):
-volcanic activity a gases a forming a palaeoatmosphere
-gradual cooling a water condensed a paleo-ocean
-continental crust formed
-rich in CO2, ammonia, nitrogen-oxide

Proterozoic (előidő):
- mountain formation a erosion a ancient shields
- ancient life forms (bacteria, algae)

Paleozoic: - photosyntesis a ozone layer
- first land plants appeared
- Caledonian and Variscian mountain systems started to form
- formation of Gondwanaland
- all the continental cores connected a supercontinent (Pangaea) formed
- Panthalassa (+ Tethys /gulf of Panthalassa)
- formation of coal

- Triassic: Pangaea divided into Laurasia and Gondwana
- Tethys substituted Panthalassa

Laurasia slided to the North
Gondwana slided to the South
- Jurassic:- formation of a rift valley led to the formation of the Atlantic Ocean
that separated Eurasia from North-America and Africa from
-convergent plates a volcanic activity a Pacific
mountain system started to form
- Australia was still connected to Antarctica
- Cretaceous: - the world ocean reached its largest extention
- Eurasia separated from North-America, and Africa from
- Eurasian mountain system started to form

Triassic: dinosaurs, first mammals appeared
Jurassic: - the main era of reptiles
- spread of ammonites (mészvázúak)
- first flowering plants
Cretaceous: by the end of the era they extincted aprobably a huge meteor impact
caused it due to which the level
of oxygen decreased on the Earth
(the depression of this caused by
this meteor still can be observed
on the Yukatan Peninsula)

- most characteristic plants are angiosperms(zárvatermők) and gymnosperms(nyitvatermők) (EZ NEM FONTOS!!!)
Cenozoic: - present location of the continents
- spread of mammals and birds
- formation of mineral oil and natural gas
- volcanism
- the end of the formation of the Eurasian and Pacific mountain system
- Atlantic and Indian Ocean formed
- climate got colder a Ice Age
- the end of the era (holocene): climate got warmer and the land was shaped by external forces + the appearance of the Homo Sapiens



Nowadays Japan is one of the countries which produces the most rapid economic development. In the last decades of the twentieth century, we can talk about a kind of explosion in the case of Japan and the little tigers. Although Japan has been isolated for several centuries and belonged to the losers of the Second World War, it has undergone a rapid development thanks to the contribution of the USA.  

It has several causes:
- Japan invested a lot of money into huge projects and spent little money on military purposes;
- Relying on the scientific breakthroughs Japan introduced the most up-to-date machinery products and production methods;
- disciplined and cheap Japanese labour force
- exemplary cooperation amongst the industrial branches and their workers;
- The cheap and high quality products initially conquered the South Asian region and later the whole world market and Japan supplelyrugalmasan accommodated itself to the foreign demands.
- A very efficient educational system was formed in order to ensure the economic development.

Japan is poor in mineral resources. This is why it is the greatest importer of raw materials and energy resources in the world. The needed coal, iron ore and uranium ore is imported by its own fleet. Primarily from those countries where there opened mines with Japanese financial support. Japan imports mineral oil from the Middle East and it is processed in oil refineries and chemical industries that are installed on the coasts. The Indian iron ore, the Malaysian and Philippine non-ferrous metals and the Australian bauxite are also processed by them. The production of crude iron and steel is on the forefront in the world.The most important branch of processing industry is machine production. Within precision engineering the machine-tool industry and vehicle-making are the most important. In tanker and car making Japan is the number one in the world. And in the production of electronic and informatic tools as well. Japan installed those factories to South Korea and Hong-kong where less up-to-date products are made. For those industrial branches where planes, missiles, satellites and industrial robots are formed, separated technopolises are formed. The cities not only ensure work for their dwellers but healthy and nice environment as well. There is a Silicon valley (like in the USA) which is a technology park.

Japan organizes its transportation via eight great and one thousand smaller ports. The greatest ports are in Osaka. The merchant fleet is the third greatest in the world. The rail transport is very precise and quick in the country.

The temperate zone

There are 4 seasons in the entire temperate zone, it is because the Earth orbits around the Sun and its axis is inclined and the inclination does not change during one rotation.

The westerly winds are the prevailing winds in the whole zone.

Warm temperate zone

On the western side of the mainland a mediterranean climate, on the eastern side a subtropical monsoon climate has developed in the warm temperate belt.

The mediterranean area is the largest in size in the region of the Mediterranean Sea.
Two seasons:
Summer: hot and dry
Winter: mild and rainy.
Annual mean precipitation: 400-1000 mm; annual mean temperature fluctuation: 15-20°c; annual mean temperature: 10-20°c.
Winds: in summer, the descending branch of the trade winds; in winter,
The large forests have unfortunately been partially eliminated.
Vegetation: citruses, dates, grapes, figs, bay trees, Lebanon cedar trees, evergreen shrubs.
The red terra rossa is the most characteristic soil. It’s poor in humus because there is little humus formation. In the deciduous forests: cinnamon-coloured forest soil.
The water levels are extremely fluctuating because of the characteristics of the climate: in summer, the river beds may dry up but in the winter there are heavy floods.
The surface is chiefly shaped by the rivers.

The subtropical monsoon regions lie on the eastern side of the mainland.
2 seasons:
Winter: cool and dry
Summer: hot and rainy.
Annual mean precipitation: 1000-1500 mm; annual mean temperature fluctuation: 5-25°c; annual mean temperature: 10-20°c.
Winds: the alteration of summer and winter monsoon winds.
Vegetation: Bay foliage forests, bamboo, tea shrubs, rice (even 2 harvests a year), cotton.
The soils are red and yellow and are poor as they contain little humus.
The main surface forming forces: In winter: disintegration and surface washing; in summer: deepening river erosion.

Cold temperate zone

It has developed only in the northern hemisphere.
2 seasons:
Winter: very cold and long
Summer: short, relatively warm and rainy.
Annual mean temperature: 0 - -10°c; annual mean temperature fluctuation: 20-70°c; annual mean precipitation: 200-700 mm.
Winds: westerly winds and sometimes polar winds.
Vegetation: taiga. The largest pine forests.
Not so fertile podzol soils have been formed in the whole zone.
Down to the great fluctuation of temperature, disintegration is significant.
Forestry and the breeding of fur animals are significant.

True temperate belt

Between the cold and warm temperate zones.
The climate is determined by the westerly winds and the cyclones. Less and less precipitation towards the interior parts of the continents. Four regions: oceanic, moderately continental, continental and extremely continental.

The oceanic regions have developed by the coasts.
Two seasons:
Summers are cool.
Winters are mild.
Annual mean temperature: 5-12°c; annual mean temperature fluctuation:7-15°c; annual mean precipitation: 800-2000 mm.
The annual distribution of precipitation is even.
The large beech forests have largely been eliminated. The grass is green throughout the year.
Soil: brown forest soil and podzol in the cooler northern areas.
The disintegration of rocks is governed by weathering. River erosion is the main surface forming force.

The moderately continental regions lie East of oceanic regions and on the eastern coasts of the continents. Weaker and weaker oceanic features.

Winters are cold and summers are warm. Four „regular” seasons.
Annual mean temperature: 0-12°c; annual mean temperature fluctuation: 10-20°c; annual mean precipitation: 500-800 mm.
Droughts are frequent in warmer southern areas in July and August. On the eastern side of the continent, the summer monsoon brings abundant rainfall.
Vegetation: oak forests. Beech forests (400-1200 m). Towards the interior of the mainlands, wooded prairies occupy the place of deciduous forests.
Brown forest soil is the predominant soil type.
Surface forming forces: disintegration, weathering and watercourses.

Continental regions

Cold winters and warm summers. The early summer is the most rainy.
Annual mean temperature: 0-15°c; annual mean temperature fluctuation: 25-45°c; annual mean precipitation: 300-500 mm.
Westerly winds.
Vegetation: grassland. In Eurasia: steppe; in North America: prairie; in South America: pampa.
The steppe soil in the tall grass region contains much humus. Chestnut-brown soil with dwarf grasses.
Disintegration, weathering.
Vegetation: arable land; potato, wheat,
Cattle and sheep breeding.

Extremely continental regions

Cold winters and hot summers.
Annual mean temperature: 0-15°c; annual mean temperature fluctuation: 25-50°c; annual mean precipitation: 100-200 mm.
Westerly winds.
Semi-deserts and deserts. E.g. the Gobi. Located in the interior of the continents or in the vicinity of the oceans in basins surrounded by high mountains.
Nomadic shepherding, oases.

2010. november 7., vasárnap

Transformation of the structure of industry on the basis of the old industrial regions of the EU

Industry: a branch of economy The process in which industry becomes the leading branch of economy, is called industrialization.

Most important industrial regions of Europe a developed in the 18th-19th cent. at the time of the exploitation of coal deposits Where coking coal and iron ore appeared a rapid industrialization began

Largest industrial regions are installed at the old mining areas:
- Black Country
- Meuse Valley (Belgium)
- vicinity of Lille
- Lorraine
- Asturias
- vicinity of Bilbao
- Ruhr & Saar region

Ruhr region as an example of all
- characteristic polycentric urban agglomeration
- hard-coal-based
- 4/5 of the coal mined in Germany
- 1 of crude oil and steel production comes from here
- Nearly 1 of Germany’s chemical production
- exhausted iron mines (Rhine schist mountains) assisted the expansion
- navigable canals of the Rhine of the ind. district
- Rhine and its tributaries are not enough to supply the water demand of the region a industrial water is re-used (water recycling)
- most important ind. branches are in connection with coal mining
- coke (koksz) is a dominant factor in the location of metallurgy
- they import Swedish, African and Brazilian ores
- power plants (erőművek) which are fed by hard coal provide electric power
- heavy industry: - great consumer of rolled steel plates
- manufacturing of mining machines
- metallurgical and power plant machinery
- railroad
- military equipment
- chamber gas is used for making chemical products and glass works
- old plants were converted in oil refineries
- petrochemical industry settled here a gets raw-material through pipelines
a pushes coal chemistry into the background
- textile factories a employing female labour force
a processes mainly the synthetic fibres (műszál) produced nearby
Structural crisis of the last 3 decades:
1.) since the 1950’s aamount of coal mined decreased to 1
a the amount of employees decreased to 1/3
2.) increased use of artificial materials and special metal alloys a demand for steel
decreased worldwide
3.) up-to-date technical procedures appeared
blast furnaces: - located near iron ore mines
- combines which obtained inexpensive raw-materials from
overseas a advantageous situation
- operate right near the Rhine ports (e.g. Duisburg)
- operate in cities lying farther from the waterway
(e.g. Dortmund)

Coal & steel crisis a many jobs disappeared in a short time

Ruhr region had to attract new, up-to-date branches of industry
by offering various advantages (e.g. Opel Works settled here)

expansion of chemical industry and electrotechnics

cities became more attracting

But crisis is still not solved, outmigration and unemployment still exist.

Economic stagnation in other areas as well:
e.g. traditional textile industry regions

around Lille and Lyon
in the vicinity of Liverpool and Manchester

more and more companies cannot withstand the competition (with the cheaply produced goods in developing countries)

have to be closed

unemployment decline of
outmigration the European
gradual transformation of the structure of industry textile centres

Transnational companies

Definiton: Those companies the activity of which pass the borders of their country, thus they do not produce their products in only one certain country, but in the whole world economy. They establish subsidiaries or contain companies in different countries. Sometimes they are called multinational companies („multi”), but a company is actually called „multi” if its owners are from different countries.

Summary: - passes the borders of its country
- produces in the whole world economy
- sells its products at the world market
- establishes subsidiaries
- is called „multi” sometimes

Aim: They locate certain activities to certain countries or regions in order to decrease the budget of production to the minimum and increase the profit to the maximum.

Reason for their establishment: the world economy became worldwide in the 1970’s oil crisis of the 70’s a companies had to recognize the demand of the consumers a they have to take the appropriate product to the market fast competition have to be able to produce the goods on the lowest price they locate the factories to different places where the certain part of production is the cheapest

Consumers’ demand: goods produced in relatively short series, and those change fast a need of fast reaction a flexible (rugalmas) production

Large-scale development of communication a condition of the worldwide location of production
a possibility for the transport of capital in a short time

General Characterization:
1.) After the World War II: - companies had subsidiaries abroad
parent company subsidiary
decision production
research & technology
2.) Nowadays: transnational companies + their subsidiaries = integrated network of
parent company subsidiary
headquarters of the company production
decisions are made here
control of planning
control of research and development
control of market research

Operation system of the TNCs
market research & marketing
close to the consumers’ market
research & development
close to the large cities containing universities
all over the world
production of basic materials
in developing countries, close to the raw- material and energy („kéményes ipar”)
production of components (részegységek)
anywhere where there is cheap, but skilled labour force and tax allowance (adókedvezmény)
production of the end product (végtermék) + assembly (összeszerelés) + marketing (értékesítés)
near the consumers’ market

The basic condition for this system is the modern infrastructure. The activity of the TNCs is followed by the flow of functioning capital a strengthens the role of financial sector

Competition between TNCs a they spend much on Research + Development
a they always change their park/site (telephely) according to
the beneficial possibilities of world economy
a dispersion (szétszórtság) is characteristic
creates possibility for work
As the role of national economies role of TNCs grow

Transport of Hungary

A good transport system and a fast and cheap transportation help the economical production.

 Hungary is the meeting area of the west- east end the north-south transport system of the Carpathian-basin. So the transit traffic (átmenő forgalom) is considerable.

The Hungarian transport system needs development. So they build new-motorways 
-navigable canals (hajózható csatorna)
Transit (áruszállítás): 
I. truck (tehergépkocsi) transport
–it need not transhipment (átrakodás)
-relatively cheap
II. railway
- it is appropriate for transport of mass goods (tömegtermékek)

People transport (személyszállítás): 
I. coach-between cities and villages bus-between homes and workplaces
II. air transport-for long distances

Hungarian transport is radial built (sugaras szerkezetű) and it is extremely (túlzottan) Budapest centred.
Density of the transport system is medium compared to (viszonyítani v-mihez) the European average.
Settlements without railway are connected to the transport by coaches.

-The name of the Hungarian railway is Hungarian National Railway: MÁV
-There are large differences between the circulation of the certain lines.->some of them are
-It has good joints to the European railway system. given up for today
-It can develop, if it can take place in a larger degree in the combined carriage.
-Railway is faster and cheaper than the truck transport. (kombinált fuvarozás)
-The busiest railway stations: 

-Roads are not strong and wide enough for the extended traffic.
-Roads, which are internationally significant, are very crowded (zsúfolt).
-Highways and main roads are side by side the railways.->There are no opportunities to make new economical relations inside the country.

-M0:Bp. beltway
-M3:Bp.-Miskolc, Debrecen

Main roads: 
-Mr3: Bp.-Miskolc-Tornyosnémeti

Navigation (vízi közlekedés):
-Navigation  is only significant in external trade.-Rhine-Main-Danube canal
-The cheapest kind of transport, but it is slow.
-Significant traffic is only on the Danube.
-It has natural disadvantages:
 -autumnal and wintry low tide (vízállás)
-ice drift (jégzajlás)

Reasons, why lost the watery transport its significance:
-Ships on the Danube are antiquated and there is no money for the development.
-The Danube and the Tisza flow side by side and there is no connection between them.

Air transport:
-This kind of transport develops the fastest.
-The fastest kind of transport, but it is expensive.
-It is economical only in the international transport.
-The name of the Hungarian airline is MALÉV.
-The busiest international airport is Budapest-Ferihegy.
-Other airports are for example in Debrecen and in Sármellék.

The liquid and gaseous goods, such as mineral oil and natural gas, are transported by pipelines (csővezetékek).

Underground waters in Hungary

The greatest storages of layer waters (rétegvizek) are the alluvial cones that formed in the quaternary period. If the water of the rivers infiltrates through the sand and marble layers, it is called water filtered at the bank (parti szűrésű víz). For instance, the water demand of the inhabitants of Budapest is satisfied from this water stock (vízkészlet).

A group of layer waters: artesian waters (artézi vizek). These waters come to the surface because of the high pressure.

By the 19-20th century the demands have been satisfied from the waters of the wells, these are called ground waters (talajvíz, remélem ez a jó szó rá). This was a serious source of infection, no doubt. 5-10% of the extracted water is still ground water.
If the water table (the surface of the ground water, talajvíztükör) elevates above the ground, then it is called inland water (belvíz).

Another group of layer waters: thermal waters (hévíz). If the temperature reaches 30°c.

At karstic areas where water infiltrates through the surface, the space waters (résvizek) appear in the form of cold or warm karstic springs. They have had an important role in the drinking water supply of Miskolc and Pécs for a long time. However, they are still present at the spas of Hévíz, Eger and Buda.

Unequal economic development within the European Union

Within the European Union, The so-called Blue Banana is the most developed district. Its extension: Southern part of England – Benelux states – Ruhr Region – the valley of River Rhine – Switzerland – Northern Italy.

-          The most developed economy and industry
-          44% of the workers are employed in the industry
-          Outstanding: machine industry, factory equipment, vehicles and electronic goods
-          Thyssen: the biggest metallurgical corporation
-          Car-making: Volkswagen, Mercedes
-          Chemical industry: Bayer, BASF
-          1990: unified Germany, the equalization between the two parts took up several years

-          Varied natural resources & well-balanced economic structure
-          Industry: in the surroundings of Paris and in the North
-          Other development centres: Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux

Great Britain
-          After the loss of her colonies England has fallen behind her European competitors
After this:
-          Rapid development in Southern England
-          The old industrial districts of Central England suffer from the crises of coal mining, metallurgy and textile industry even today
-          Less developed: The North (Scotland), oil production and microelectronics

The Benelux countries and Denmark
-          Overdeveloped metropolises: Copenhagen (Denmark), Amsterdam, Rotterdam (the Netherlands) and Brussels (Belgium)
-          In Belgium, the Fertile Flemish part by the seacoast was outstanding for decades

-          The least-developed country of Western Europe
-          In recent decades, tax allowances were granted for foreigners in order to facilitate industrialization

The less developed peripheral part of the EC is the Mediterranean area.
-          The Industry of Spain, Portugal and Greece expanded rapidly in the last few decades
-          Favourable natural conditions: they are the main suppliers of early vegetables, citruses, wine and edible oils on the European market
-          TOURISM. Spain and Italy are the 2 most important countries

-          The Northern part is more developed than the Southern one, it has historical roots
-          In the North: Turin-Milan-Genoa triangle
-          Po Valley: very fertile plain

The newly-joined countries mainly belong to the pheripheral countries of the European Union, except for some developed districts. These countries cannot catch up with the developed central parts and not just because of their physical position but their size and previous development are also not the class of the field.

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